One of Stalin’s most loyal deputies, he was known to personally torture spies and traitors.
He was later made minister for state security in 1946, leading purges of inner Politburo members.
Such intelligence was so valuable that the previous highest British security classification, “most secret”, was considered insufficient. Ryan accused Lenglen of being a poser whose spectacular leaps on court were purely for show, while Lenglen once threw Ryan’s clothes out of a changing room window.
Source: Ultra Goes To War by Ronald Lewin More at: History Suzanne Lenglen (1899-1938) and Elizabeth Ryan (1892-1979) were one of the top women’s doubles teams in tennis in the 1920s. Source: Tennis’s Most Wanted by Floyd Conner More at: History Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the most powerful man in the Soviet Union during his violent reign as premier. Answer: Viktor Abakumov (1908-1954), head of the far-reaching SMERSH counter-intelligence organisation during 1943-1946, and commissar of defence of the USSR during the Second World War.
The word candle ( candela , from candeo , to burn) was introduced into the English language as an ecclesiastical term, probably as early as the eighth century.
It was known in classical times and dennoted any kind of taper in which a wick, not uncommonly made of a strip of papyrus, was encased in wax or animal fat.
This cape, or its representative, was afterwards preserved as a relic and accompanied the Frankish kings in their wars, and the tent which sheltered it became known also as cappella or capella .
Martin divided his military cloak ( cappa ) and gave half to the beggar at the gate of Amiens, he wrapped the other half round his shoulders, thus making of it a cape ( capella ).
But the Church from a very early period took them into her service, just as she adopted many other things indifferent in themselves, which seemed proper to enhance the splendour of religious ceremonial.The word is first found used in this sense by Marculfus (seventh century), who gives the above etymology, an explanation which has been generally accepted ever since, though Durandus ventures upon an alternative derivation, to wit, capra , because the tent above mentioned was made of goat-skins.Another, but improbable, derivation is cupella , a domical or cup-shaped monument (see CUPOLA).The carrying of tapers figures among the marks of respect prescribed to be shown to the highest dignitaries of the Roman Empire in the "Notitia Dignitatum Imperii".It is highly probable that the candles which were borne from a very early period before the pope or the bishop when he went in procession to the sanctuary, or which attended the transport of the book of the Gospels to the ambo or pulpit from which the deacon read, were nothing more than an adaptation of this secular practice.